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Overview

Modern CPUs have speculative execution capabilities, which improves processor performance. Depending on the design and architecture of the CPU, speculative execution can introduce side-channel-attack vulnerabilities.

Known Vulnerabilities

PublicCVEAlias(es)CPUs AffectedSpeculative TriggerImpactMitigationsReferences
Jan 3, 2018CVE-2017-5753Spectre V1Intel
ARM
Branch prediction bounds check bypassCross- and intra-process (including kernel) memory disclosure

OS

Compiler

Browser

https://www.kb.cert.org/vuls/id/584653

https://www.intel.com/content/www/us/en/architecture-and-technology/facts-about-side-channel-analysis-and-intel-products.html

https://developer.arm.com/support/arm-security-updates/speculative-processor-vulnerability

Jan 3, 2018CVE-2017-5715Spectre V2Intel
AMD
ARM
Branch target injectionCross- and intra-process (including kernel) memory disclosureMicrocode

https://www.kb.cert.org/vuls/id/584653

https://www.intel.com/content/www/us/en/architecture-and-technology/facts-about-side-channel-analysis-and-intel-products.html

https://www.amd.com/en/corporate/security-updates
https://developer.arm.com/support/arm-security-updates/speculative-processor-vulnerability

Jan 3, 2018CVE-2017-5754

Spectre V3

Meltdown

IntelOut-of-order executionKernel memory disclosure to userspaceOShttps://www.kb.cert.org/vuls/id/584653
https://www.intel.com/content/www/us/en/architecture-and-technology/facts-about-side-channel-analysis-and-intel-products.html
May 21, 2018CVE-2018-3640Spectre V3a (RSRE)Intel
ARM
System register readDisclosure of system register valuesMicrocode

https://www.kb.cert.org/vuls/id/180049

https://www.intel.com/content/www/us/en/security-center/advisory/intel-sa-00115.html

https://developer.arm.com/support/arm-security-updates/speculative-processor-vulnerability

May 21, 2018CVE-2018-3639Spectre V4 (SSB)Intel
AMD
ARM

Memory reads before prior memory write addresses knownCross- and intra-process (including kernel) memory disclosure

OS

Microcode

https://www.kb.cert.org/vuls/id/180049

https://www.intel.com/content/www/us/en/security-center/advisory/intel-sa-00115.html
https://www.amd.com/en/corporate/security-updates

https://developer.arm.com/support/arm-security-updates/speculative-processor-vulnerability

Jun 13, 2018CVE-2018-3665Lazy FPIntelLazy FPU state restoreLeak of FPU stateOShttps://www.intel.com/content/www/us/en/security-center/advisory/intel-sa-00145.html
July 10, 2018CVE-2017-5753Spectre1.1Intel

Bounds check bypass

Speculative buffer overflow

Cross- and intra-process (including kernel) memory disclosure

OShttps://01.org/security/advisories/intel-oss-10002
July 10, 2018CVE-2018-3693Spectre1.2IntelBounds check bypass store

Overwrite read-only data and pointers

Cross- and intra-process (including kernel) memory disclosure

OS

https://01.org/security/advisories/intel-oss-10002

https://arxiv.org/abs/1807.03757

Notes

General

The causes of these vulnerabilities are rooted in CPU hardware design choices intended to optimize performance.
https://lwn.net/Articles/755419/
https://pdfs.semanticscholar.org/2209/42809262c17b6631c0f6536c91aaf7756857.pdf

Spectre V1

Spectre V1 has been demonstrated to bypass protections provided by Intel SGX. Intel has updated the SGX SDK to mitigate these vulnerabilities when the SGX enclaves are rebuilt. 
https://software.intel.com/sites/default/files/managed/e1/ec/SGX_SDK_Developer_Guidance-CVE-2017-5753.pdf

Spectre V1 has also been demonstrated to access protections provided by the System Management Range Register (SMRR) to access protected System Management Mode (SMM) memory.
https://blog.eclypsium.com/2018/05/17/system-management-mode-speculative-execution-attacks/

Lazy FP

Lazy FP may particularly expose AES keys:

The FPU state may contain sensitive information such as cryptographic keys. As an example, the Intel AES instruction set (AES-NI) uses FPU registers to store round keys. It is only possible to exploit when the underlying operating system or hypervisor uses lazy FPU switching.
https://blog.cyberus-technology.de/posts/2018-06-06-intel-lazyfp-vulnerability.html

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